What is Non-woven Fabric? Different Types of Non-woven Fabric
Nonwoven fabrics are flat fabrics constructed from short-staple fibers and long filament fibers that have been felted or chemically glued together. The fibers might be aligned in one direction or randomly distributed into webs, mats, or sheets. It could have a single layer or numerous layers. Non-woven fabrics are produced without the need for spinning or weaving because they are generated directly from separate fibers and molten or dissolved fiber-producing ingredients such as plastic. It is claimed to be the simplest way to produce fabric from fibers. The most prevalent fibers are polyester and viscose (rayon). Nylon, microfiber, acrylic cotton, and bamboo fiber are some more fibers. In this article, we present What is Non-woven Fabric, Different Types of Non-woven Fabric; Characteristics, its uses, and how it is made.
We frequently utilize interfacing, fusible web, felt, faux leather, fleece, and batting as nonwoven textiles. Types of Non-woven fabric are used to make dryer sheets and wet wipes. Suede and synthetic suede are both non-woven fabrics. Other non-woven fabrics include vinyl, vinyl and resin-coated fabrics, rubberized fabrics, and plastic laminates. Boiled wool is a fabric created using the non-woven technique. Examples of Non-woven Fabrics are Spunbond non-woven, Spunlace non-woven, Head-bonded non-woven, Airlaid non-woven, Wetlaid non-woven, Stitch-bond nonwoven, Drylaid nonwoven, Acupuncture nonwoven, Meltblown non-woven, Direct spun non-woven.
Another Type of non-woven fabric is Polypropylene, which is used to manufacture disposable hospital gowns, bed covers, and other items. These fabrics are also used to make bag linings, shopping bags, shoe bags, and disposable diaper covers. Nonwovens made of wool are used for filtration. They are also employed in the production of thermal blankets. They are also utilized in the production of bathroom mats. Let’s find out Different Types of Non-woven Fabric.
What is Non-woven Fabric?
To define the fabric, it’s not a woven Fabric, not even a knit Fabric; made from long fibers or short fibers bonded together through mechanical, chemical, or thermal processes. Unlike the other fabric types that are created by interlacing yarns, non-woven fabrics are produced by bonding or interlocking fibers together. They can be made from synthetic fibers like polyester, and polypropylene, or natural fibers like cotton or wool. Non-woven fabrics have various applications, including in disposable products like masks, wipes, filters, geotextiles, medical supplies, and more, due to their versatility, durability, and ability to be manufactured at different levels of thickness and density.
Non-woven Fabric Characteristics
1. Lightweight and long-lasting
Nonwoven fabric has the potential to be reasonably strong and long-lasting. It is frequently used in applications that require extreme durability and resilience, such as geotextiles and industrial fabrics. Non-woven fabrics are frequently made of polypropylene, which is extremely lightweight and has a fluffy and pleasant feel.
2. Eco-Friendly Fabric
Nonwoven fabrics are one type of environmentally friendly fabric. Because of their environmental friendliness, non-woven textiles are widely used in a variety of industries. Polypropylene’s fragile chemical structure allows its molecular chain to be easily broken, allowing it to be dissolved and returned to the environment in an inert state.
3. Versatile Fabric
Nonwoven fabrics can be customized for specific applications by using the right fibers, bonding processes, and finishing treatments. This enables them to be tuned for certain features like softness, abrasion resistance, or chemical resistance. Nonwoven fabrics can be used in a variety of applications, ranging from medical to industrial.
4. Outstanding Softness
Non-woven materials can be soft and resilient, rigid and stiff, or big and stiff. These materials are ideal for applications requiring a high level of comfort, such as medical wear and hygiene items.
5. Permeable to water
Because of the fabric’s three-dimensional structure and space ratio, nonwoven fabrics absorb and retain water better than woven fabrics of equivalent fabric density. The finished product is extremely water-repellent, does not absorb water, and has no moisture.
How are they Made?
Various techniques are used to glue fibers together to generate the non-woven fabric. An adhesive is utilized in the chemical procedure to glue the fibers together. Bonding or interlocking is accomplished mechanically through needling, fluid jet entanglement, or sewing. A binder in the form of powder, paste, or polymer melt is introduced in the thermal process, and the binder is melted onto the web by increasing the temperature. Nonwoven plastics/pleather and vinyl materials are created by shaping fluid fiber solutions made of chemical polymers into flat sheets/films. They can be used on their own or with knitted or woven backings.
Different Types of Non-woven Fabric
There are various varieties of Types of non-woven fabric based on the manufacturing technique, we added the following:
1. Wet-laid nonwovens
Wet-laid nonwovens are created using a mechanical technique known as wet laying. It’s similar to creating paper with different basic materials. Fibers are produced into a slurry and transferred to a mesh-making mechanism where they are laid wet to form a textile. Adhesive bonding is usually done next. This is how felt and felted materials are manufactured.
2. Spun laid nonwovens
Spunbond nonwovens are another name for spunlaid nonwovens. Spinnerets spin fibers or polymer slices into endless filaments. These filaments are cooled and stretched by air before being deposited in the form of a random web on a moving sieve belt. This conveyor belt transports the web to the bonding zone, where it is bonded via a thermal, mechanical, or chemical technique. A spun bonded nonwoven is used as an interfacing material.
3. Stitch bond nonwovens
A nonwoven stitch bond is created on a weaving machine. On a weaving machine, the web is held in place and bonded with chain-stitch seams. On one or both sides, the fabric will feature distinct stitching patterns. The stitch bonding procedure provides the web with a flatter and softer texture. The batting scrim is thread-bonded.
4. Solvent bond nonwovens
A web of acrylic and polyester fibers is treated with a precise amount of solvent. It softens the fiber surfaces, causing bonding.
5. Thermal bond nonwovens
Thermal bond nonwovens are constructed from thermoplastic fibers or thermostatic powders such as polyester, polypropylene, nylon, and others. Thermal bonding is classified into four types. Air bonding is the application of hot air to a web on a conveyor belt. Impingement bonding, in which the web is placed in an oven, and hot air impinges from nozzles onto the web surface. Calendar bonding, in which the web is moved between heated rollers, and ultrasonic bonding, in which an ultrasonic frequency causes a vibrational motion and the bonding occurs through energy conversion.
6. Chemical bond nonwovens
Chemical bond nonwovens are created by putting a binder (resin or latex) on the web’s surface. One example is resin-bonded batting. Chemical bonding is classified into four categories. Print bonding, spray bonding, saturation, and foam bonding are all options. Print bonding is accomplished using gravure roll printing and screen printing. Spray bonding involves the application of latex to a web that is placed on a conveyor belt. The web is saturated by being directly dipped in a latex tank and then dried in a drier. The fabric is more resilient and has a softer feel thanks to foam bonding.
7. Hydroentangled nonwovens
The impact force of high-pressure water jets onto the web surface of a fast-moving conveyor belt produces hydraulic nonwovens. The bonding quality is determined by the amount of pressure applied to the web.
8. Carded nonwovens
This is a nonwoven material characterization based on how the fibers are arranged when the material is manufactured. To comb the fibers into a web, a carding machine is employed, and the fibers are aligned in the machine’s direction. This results in an extremely robust non-woven fabric. The alternative method is air-laid. Both of these methods are used to create non-woven web materials.
Non-woven materials are becoming more popular. Nonwovens have numerous applications and can be classified as industrial materials, major consumer items, and disposables. Let’s look at some Non-woven fabric applications.
1. Construction: Insulation, pipe wrap, house wrap, flooring substrates, roofing, acoustic ceiling covers, vapor and air infiltration barriers, and so on.
2. Household and furnishings: draperies, mattress cushioning, upholstery, towels, carpet backing, tablecloths, blankets, and so on.
3. Medical products: Surgical gowns, surgical masks, industrial masks, procedure packs, underpads, heat packs, bandages, wipes, towels, and so on.
4. Industrial applications: filters, packaging materials, insulation, roadbed stabilization, geotextiles, sheeting, roofing materials, and so on.
5. Hygiene products: Diapers, sanitary napkins, dust cloths, cleansing wipes, facial wipes, disposable bed sheets, disposable towels
Is Non-woven Fabric Waterproof?
Water resistance can be added to nonwoven textiles; however, not all nonwoven fabrics are waterproof Fabric. Spun bond and melt-blown nonwoven materials, for example, are intrinsically water-resistant due to their structure. Other nonwoven textiles, such as needle punch and air-laid, can be treated with a water-repellent coating to make them water-resistant.
Finally, Different Types of Non-woven Fabric have numerous applications in a variety of sectors. Nonwoven fabrics are manufactured using various ways and are widely used in the medical, hygiene, construction, automotive, agriculture, and geotextile industries. Because of its adaptability and extensive use, it is a versatile fabric for a variety of purposes.
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